Methods for Planning and Design

5.3.1 Process Planning

“Process planning” was used to plan the school garden, given the length of time the process was expected to take. Although we knew in which direction we wanted the project to proceed, it was difficult to predict what kind of flora and fauna would be established there in the future, so we needed to choose a flexible planning method for this project. The architect Arata Isozaki (1970) described three different types of planning process.

Methods for Planning and Design

Fig. 5.3 The planning site in the urban park before renewal design. (Photograph taken by K. Ito, February 2008)

Methods for Planning and Design

Fig. 5.4 The old map around the site in 1932. (Provided by Kitakyushu City government)

Methods for Planning and Design

Fig. 5.5 Multifunctional landscape planning (Ito et al. 2003, 2010)

1. “Closed planning,” which takes every aspect of the planning process into consideration.

2. “Open planning,” which focuses on development for the future.

3. “Process planning,” which focuses on the planning process itself and not solely the end form.

“Process planning” was thought to be the best method for planning the school garden when taking into consideration that the space will evolve over time and that its form is likely to change in the future according to the needs of those who use it. Thus, the creation of the biotope involves “process planning.”