The Dynamics of Pekarangan

Vegetation structure dynamics in pekarangan was analyzed between years 1996 and 2006 (Mayanti et al. 2007). The sample sites were located in BOPUNJUR, West Java Province. The samples were taken at the selected sites with different levels of urbanization, that is, the least urbanized sites, less urbanized sites, and urbanized sites. In 2006, there are 362 plants species in pekarangans. The result showed that between 1996 and 2006, the size of open space areas of pekarangan decreased, and the number of spesies also became less. However, the number of individual was increased because some plants, especially shrubs and ground covers can reproduce by themselves vegetatively. Some factors that influenced the changes of vegetation structure at pekarangan are (1) small open space area, (2) land fragmentation, (3) different owner, (4) changes in function of some part of the pekarangan, (5) plant popularity trend, and (6) economic condition changes.

Regarding vegetation stratification, it was observed that the first stratum of vegetation such as grasses and herbs was predominant in each level of urbanization, both in 1996 and 2006. In the intervening 10 years, the availability of tree strata was

Table 8.4 Number of species by plant function in 144 pekarangan samples on Java Island

Category

No.

Latin name

Family name

English name

I Starchy crops

1

Ipomoea batatas

Convolvulaceae

Sweet potato

2

Manihot esculenta

Euphorbiaceae

Cassava

3

Oryza sativa

Poaceae

Asian rice

4

Solanum tuberosum

Solanales

Potato

5

Zea mays

Poaceae

Maize

II Fruit plants

1

Ananas comosus

Bromeliaceae

Pineapple

2

Annona muricata

Annonaceae

Soursop

3

Annona squamosa

Annonaceae

Sugar-apple

4

Artocarpus altilis

Moraceae

Breadfruit

5

Artocarpus heterophyllus

Moraceae

Jack fruit

6

Averrhoa carambola

Oxalidaceae

Starfruit

7

Carica papaya

Caricaceae

Papaya

8

Citrullus lanatus

Cucurbitaceae

Watermelon

9

Citrus sinensis

Rutaceae

Orange

10

Cucumis melo

Cucurbitaceae

Melon

11

Dimocarpus longan

Sapindaceae

Longan

12

Durio zibethinus

Malvaceae

Durian

13

Fragaria xananassa

Rosaceae

Strawberry

14

Garcinia mangostana

Clusiaceae

Mangosteen

15

Lansium domesticum

Meliaceae

Dookoo

16

Malus domestica

Rosaceae

Apple

17

Mangifera indica

Anacardiacea

Mango

18

Manilkara zapota

Sapotaceae

Sapodilla

19

Musa paradisiaca

Musaceae

Banana

20

Nephellium lappaceum

Sapindaceae

Rambutan

21

Passiflora edulis

Passifloracea

Passionfruit

22

Persea americana

Lauraceae

Avocado

23

Phoenix dactylifera

Arecaceae

Date palm

24

Punica granatum

Lythraceae

Pomegranate

25

Salacca zalacca

Arecaceae

Snake fruit

26

Sandoricum koetjape

Meliaceae

Santol or Sandorica

27

Spondias dulcis

Anacardiaceae

Golden apple

28

Syzygium samarangense

Myrtaceae

Wax apples

29

Vitis vinifera

Vitaceae

Grape

III Vegetable

1

Allium fistulosum

Alliaceae

Spring onion

2

Amaranthus spp.

Amaranthaceae

Amaranth

3

Apium graveolens

Apiaceae

Celery

4

Archidendron pauciflorum

Fabaceae

Jengkol

5

Brassica oleracea

Brassicaceae

Cabbage

6

Brassica rapa

Brassicaceae

Chinese cabbage

7

Citrus aurantifolia

Rutaceae

Key lime

8

Cucumis sativus

Cucurbitaceae

Cucumber

9

Daucus carota

Apiaceae

Carrot

Table 8.4 (continued)

Category

No.

Latin name

Family name

English name

10

Gnetum gnemon

Gnetaceae

Melinjo

11

Ipomoea aquatica

Convolvulaceae

Water spinach

12

Luffa acutangula

Cucurbitaceae

Silk squash

13

Momordica charantia

Cucurbitaceae

Bitter melon

14

Parkia speciosa

Fabaceae

Stink bean

15

Phaseolus lunatus

Fabaceae

Lima bean

16

Sauropus androgynus

Phyllanthaceae

Sweet leaf

17

Sechium edule

Cucurbitaceae

Chayote

18

Solanum lycopersicum

Solanaceae

Tomato

19

Solanum melongena

Solanaceae

Eggplant

20

Solanum nigrum

Solanaceae

Black nightshade

21

Vigna unguiculata

Fabaceae

Yardlong bean

IV Spice crops

1

Alpinia galanga

Zingiberaceae

Blue ginger

2

Capsicum annuum

Solanaceae

Chili

3

Curcuma longa

Zingiberaceae

Turmeric

4

Cymbopogon citratus

Poaceae

Lemon grass

5

Etlingera elatior

Zingiberaceae

Torch ginger

6

Myristica fragrans

Myristicaceae

Nutmeg

7

Pandanus amaryllifolius

Pandanaceae

Pandan

8

Syzygium polyanthum

Myrtaceae

Bay leaf

9

Zingiber zerumbet

Zingiberaceae

Shampoo ginger

V Medicinal plants

1

Andrographis paniculata

Acanthaceae

Creat

2

Blumea balsamifera

Asteraceae

Sambong

3

Chloranthus erectus

Chloranthaceae

Cryphaea

4

Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides

Apiaceae

Lawn pennywort

5

Melastoma polyanthum

Melastomataceae

Grass jelly

6

Morinda citrifolia

Rubiaceae

Great morinda

7

Orthosiphon aristatus

Lamiaceae

Cat’s whiskers

8

Phaleria papuana

Thymelaeaceae

God’s crown

9

Piper betle

Piperaceae

Betel

10

Pluchea indica

Asteraceae

Marsh fleabane

11

Sonchus arvensis

Asteraceae

Swine thistle

12

Tinospora crispa

Menispermaceae

Guduchi

13

Zingiber officinale

Zingiberaceae

Ginger

VI Industrial plants

1

Camellia sinensis

Theaceae

Tea

2

Ceiba pentandra

Malvaceae

Kapok

3

Cocos nucifera

Arecaceae

Coconut

4

Coffea arabica

Rubiaceae

Coffee

5

Hevea brasiliensis

Euphorbiaceae

Rubber tree

6

Paraserianthes falcataria

Fabaceae

Albizia

7

Saccharum officinarum

Poaceae

Sugar cane

8

Syzygium aromaticum

Myrtaceae

Clove

9

Theobroma cacao

Malvaceae

Cacao

Table 8.4 (continued)

Category No. Latin name Family name English name

VII Ornamental plants

1

Acalypha macrophylla

Euphorbiaceae

Copperleaves

2

Adenium obesum

Apocynaceae

Desert-rose

3

Adiatum spp.

Pteridaceae

Maidenhair ferns

4

Agave spp.

Agavaceae

Agave

5

Aglaonema spp.

Araceae

Aglaonema

6

Aloe vera

Asphodelaceae

Aloe vera

7

Alternanthera amoena

Amaranthaceae

Alternanthera

8

Anthurium scherzeranum

Araceae

Flamingo plant

9

Araucaria heterophylla

Araucariaceae

Norfolk island pine

10

Axonopus compressus

Poaceae

Lawn grass

11

Bauhinia purpurea

Fabaceae

Hongkong orchid tree

12

Begonia spp.

Begoniaceae

Begonia

13

Bougenvillea spp.

Nyctaginaceae

Paper flower

14

Caesalpinia pulcherrima

Fabaceae

Peacock flower

15

Caladium spp.

Araceae

Caladium

16

Calathea makoyana

Marantaceae

Peacock plant

17

Cananga odorata

Annonaceae

Cananga tree

18

Canna edulis

Cannaceae

Canna

19

Carex morrowii

Cyperacea

Japanese sedge

20

Catharanthus roseus

Apocynaceae

Vinca

21

Chlorophytum comosum

Agavaceae

Spider plant

22

Chrysalidocarpus lutescens

Arecaceae

Golden cane palm

23

Chrysanthemum spp.

Asteraceae

Chrysanths

24

Clerodendron paniculatum

Clerodendron

Pagoda flower

25

Codiaeum variegatum

Euphorbiaceae

Garden croton

26

Coleus blumei

Lamiaceae

Coleus

27

Cordyline fruticosa

Asparagaceae

Red palm lily

28

Cordyline terminalis

Asparagaceae

Green palm lily

29

Crinum spp.

Amaryllidaceae

Crinum

30

Cuphea hyssopifolia

Lythraceae

Mexican heather

31

Cupressus papuana

Cupressaceae

Italian cypress

32

Cycas rumphii

Cycadaceae

Queen sago

33

Datura mollis

Solanaceae

Trumpet flower

34

Delonix regia

Fabaceae

Flamboyant

35

Dieffenbachia seguine

Araceae

Dumb cane

37

Dracaena angustifolia

Dracaenaceae

Dracaena

38

Dracaena sanderiana

Ruscaceae

Ribbon dracaena

39

Duranta spp.

Verbenaceae

Golden dewdrop

40

Epiphyllum oxypetalum

Cactaceae

Night queen

41

Epipremnum aureum

Araceae

Silver vine

42

Episcea cupreata

Gesneriaceae

Flame violet

43

Eugenia uniflora

Myrtaceae

Surinam cherry

44

Euphorbia milii

Euphorbiaceae

Christ plant

Table 8.4 (continued)

Category No. Latin name Family name English name

 

45

Euphorbia pulcherrima

Euphorbiaceae

Poinsettia

46

Ficus benjamina

Moraceae

Ficus tree

47

Ficus elastica

Moraceae

Rubber plant

48

Ficus lyrata

Moraceae

Fiddle-leaf fig

49

Gardenia augusta

Rubiaceae

Gardenia

50

Gerbera spp.

Asteraceae

Daisy

51

Gomphrena spp.

Amaranthaceae

Globe amaranth

52

Helianthus annuus

Asteraceae

Sun flower

53

Heliconia spp.

Heliconiaceae

Heliconia

54

Hemigraphis alternata

Acanthaceae

Metal leaf

55

Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

Malvaceae

Shoe flower

56

Hydrangea spp.

Hydrangeaceae

Hortensia

57

Hyophorbe lagenicaulis

Arecaceae

Bottle palm

58

Impatiens balsamina

Balsaminaceae

Garden balsam

59

Impatiens walleriana

Balsaminaceae

Balsam/busy lizzy

60

Ixora javanica

Rubiaceae

Javanese ixora

61

Jasminum multiflorum

Oleaceae

Indian jasmine

62

Jasminum sambac

Oleaceae

Jasmine

63

Kalanchoe pinnata

Crassulaceae

Miracle leaf

64

Lilium spp.

Liliaceae

Lily

65

Livistona spp.

Arecaceae

Fan palms

66

Maihuenia spp.

Cactaceae

Cactus

67

Manihot esculenta "variegata"

Euphorbiaceae

Variegated tapioca

68

Maranta leuconeura

Marantaceae

Maranta

69

Michelia alba

Magnoliaceae

White champaca

70

Michelia champaca

Magnoliaceae

Champaca

71

Mirabilis jalapa

Nyctaginaceae

Four o’clock flower

72

Neoregelia spp.

Bromeliaceae

Bromelia

73

Nerium oleander

Apocynaceae

Oleander

74

Nothopanax scutellarium

Araliaceae

Saucer-leaf

75

Nymphaea spp.

Nymphaeaceae

Water lily

76

Pachystachys lutea

Acanthaceae

Golden shrimp plant

77

Pedilanthus tithymaloides

Euphorbiaceae

Christmas candle

78

Phalaenopsis amabilis

Orchidaceae

Moon orchid

79

Philodendron spp.

Araceae

Philodendron

80

Pilea cadierei

Urticaceae

Aluminium plant

81

Pinus merkusii

Pinaceae

Pine tree

82

Platycerium bifurcatum

Polypodiaceae

Elkhorn fern

83

Plumeria alba

Apocynaceae

Caterpillar tree

84

Polianthes tuberosa

Agavaceae

Tuberose

85

Portulaca spp.

Portulacaceae

Moss roses

86

Rhapis excels

Arecaceae

Bamboo palm

87

Rhoeo discolor

Asteraceae

Oyster plant

88

Ricinus communis

Euphorbiaceae

Castor oil plant

89

Rosa spp.

Rosaceae

Rose

 

Table 8.4 (continued)

Category No.

Latin name

Family name

English name

90

Sansevieria trifasciata

Agavaceae

Snake plant

91

Saraca asoca

Fabaceae

West Indian jasmine

92

Schefflera arboricola

Araliaceae

Dwarf umbrella tree

93

Scindapsus spp.

Araceae

Scindapsus

94

Spondias pinnata

Anacardiaceae

Common hog plum

95

Stachytarpheta mutabilis

Acanthaceae

Keji beling

96

Stenochlaena palustris

Blechnaceae

Epiphytic fern

97

Syngonium podophyllum

Araceae

Syngonium

98

Tagetes erecta

Asteraceae

African marigold

99

Thuja occidentalis

Cupressaceae

Graveyard cypress

100

Wedelia biflora

Asteraceae

Beach sunflower

101

Yucca guatemalensis

Agavaceae

Spineless yucca

102

Zepiranthes spp.

Amaryllidaceae

Fairy lily or Rain

lily

103

Zinnia spp.

Asteraceae

Zinnia

VIII Others

1

Albizia saman

Fabaceae

Saman tree

2

Bambusa spp.

Poaceae

Bamboo

3

Canarium ovatum

Burseraceae

Cesnut

4

Maesopsis eminii

Rhamnaceae

Umbrella tree

5

Pterocarpus indicus

Fabaceae

Narra

6

Swietenia mahogany

Meliaceae

Mahogany

7

Tectona grandis

Lamiaceae

Teak wood

reduced in pekarangan (Fig. 8.1). Most of these factors were thought to be correllated with the impact of urbanization. This study also proposed some actions to utilize pekarangan effectively through a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approach, such as in plant selection, recycling systems, and revitalizing mixed agroforestry practices.