POROUS WOOD TIMBERS White Ash, Froxima amerkma

Diameter 5 ‘-6’. Heavy; hard; strong; works well under tools; close-grained; tough; brown heart Wood; Very thick light straw-colored sap wood. It ranged front

Nova Scotia to Florida,

* Spruce wood, though little used in the construction of furniture; has long been a favorite in the making of musical instruments, «рсеїлЦ-у sounding hoards, for ir has exceptional resonance. All of these trees ranged through all of (he New England states.

25<5 Boston Furniture of the Eighteenth Century

Red Ash, Fraxinus pctutsyivtirtica

Diameter lST-aO’, Heavy; hard; fairly strong; works well under tools; brittle; coarse-grained; light brown heartwood; very thick, lighter brown sapwood with ye Ho wish streaks. It ranged from Nova Scotia to central Georgia*

Black Ash, Fraxinus ttigm, also tailed Brown Ash

Dhmerer up to 20′. Heavy; fairly soft; not strong; tough; coarsegrained; straight­grained; separates easily along its annual rings, especially in Its thick sap wood, into min flexible layers—basket, ip I nit-scat material. Mcarlwnod is grey-brown to dark brown, luster less compared to other Ashes. Sapwood is very light brown, some­times nearly white. It ranged from Newfoundland to northern Delaware.

Basswood, Tiltл aiucncanat also called Linden

Diameter J-4′- Soft; weak; low in shock resistance; works well under tools; valued for hand carving; finishes smooth; holds paint well; glues well. Heart wood pale brown with very slight touches of red. merging gradually with the paler sap wood. It ranged from New Brunswick to Pennsylvania,

Beech. Fagui grandi/di#

Diameter j -4′. Hard; strong; lough; high in shoe It resistance; difficult to work with band tools, but excellent for turning; stays smooth when subjected to friction; pale rose to reddish brown. It ranged from New Brunswick to northern Deb ware,

BLACK BlVCH, lietula lentaT also called Ssvcct Birch and Cherry Birch

Diameter i’-jHeavy; very strong; hard; close-grained; very high in shock re­sistance; turns well; takes a smooth finish; dark brown tinged with red. It tanged from southern Maine and northwestern Vermont to northern Delaware.

Yellow Birch, Betula also called Grey Birch

Diameter J f-4′. Heavy; very strong; bard; close-grained; high in shock resistance; turns well; takes a smooth finish; light brown tinged with icd. It ranged at its best in nordiem New England; small and rare in southern New England.

Paper Birch, Betida papyri/ere, also called Canoe Birch

Diameter 2 ‘-3Light; strong; hard; tough (but less so tlun the Black Birch and the Yellow Birch); very close-grained; turns extremely well; takes a smooth finish; light brown tinged with red. It ranged over northern New England; small and rare in the coastal region oi southern New England.

Black Gum, Ny&a syfoaiita, also called Sour Gum, Tupelo, and Pcppcridgc

Diameter up to 3′. Usually heavy’; soft; strong; very tough; usually with inter-

locking grain; moderate]v high m shock resistance; difficult to split’, refractory under hand tools; Mulshes very well; takes paint well; stains well; glues satis­factorily; tight yellow to almost white. It ranged front the valley of the Kennebec River, Maine, to northern Florida,

Blue В BBCK, Carpiiius earoliniana, also called American Hornbeam, Water Beech, and I ran wood

Diameter up to 2′ Hard; moderately strong it) betiding; exceedingly high in shock resistance; splits with great difficulty; stiff; good for handles, vehicle parts, levers; William Noyes wrote in Wood and Form (Peoria, Illinois, ttjuJ, p. i2j,"No other wood so good for levers, because of stiffness”; pale yellowish to light brown. It ranged from Nova Scotu to Florida.

R DTTBBtNUT, JigWr diierca, also called White Walnut

Diameter іLight; soft; Util Strong; COarse-grai tied; straight-grained; mod­erately high in shock resistance; works well; takes stain well; light brown turning darker with exposure. It ranged from New Brunswick to eastern Virginia.

[Нлек С неййу, PrwtttJ ятрґйм,. also called Wild Cherry and Rum Cherry

Diameter 4 J-j *. I. ight to moderately heavy; moderately strong; rather hard; close­grained; straight-grained; strong in bending and endwise compression; high in shock resistance: works well with tools; finishes smoothly; glues satisfactorily; Satiny surface; light і О dark reddish brawn. It ranged from Nova SfOlia to Central Florida.

Chestnut, Cdstwiea detttaia, also called American Chestnut

Diameter і ‘-4Light; soft to moderately hard; not strong; easily split; moderately low in shock resistance; works well under tools; glues very well; very resistant to decay; greyish blown to reddish brown, tt ranged from Southern Maine to Delaware.

Dogwood, CornusJlorida, also called Flowering Dogwood

Diameter 12′-1#’. Heavy; hard to very hard; strong; elosc-gramed; strong in bend­ing and in endwise compression; very high ш shock resistance; difficult to work with tools; svean smooth with use; turns well; glues poorly. Uses of this wood hu’t always been contingent upon its extreme hardness and fine texture which let it work and stay smooth under continuous wear— mallei heads, pulleys, vehicle parts, hubs of wheels, and machine bearings, bap wood is very wide pinkish brown; heart wood, when present, dark brown variegated with shades of green and red. It ranged from southern Maine to central Florida.

2$& Boston Furniture of the Eighteenth Century Pignut Hick чиї, Carya ardiformts, also called Butemut

Du meter 2′-}’. Heavy to very heavy; very hard; strong; tough; close-grained: straight-grained; strong to very strong in bending and endwise compression; high to exceedingly high in jhoeit resistance; works satisfactorily under tools; finishes well; below average for gluing; dark brown hrartwood with thick lighter sap – wood. It ranged front southern Maine to northwestern Florida.

Shells ark Hickory, Сигул watt, also called Shagbark Hickory

Diameter i ‘-4’ Same general properties as Pignut Nicltory, but 1 definitely lighter brown. It ranged from southern Maine to western Florida.

Hickory, Carya alba

Diameter up 10 3Very heavy; hard; tough; strong; flexible; close-grained; rich dark brown like the Pignut. It ranged front eastern Massachusetts 10 Florida.

Hully, tfice Opflffl

Diameter i’-jLight; tough; not strong; dosc-graincd; moderately strong in bending; high in shock resistance; stains well; carves well; works well under tools; turns well; nearly white when first cut. turning brownish with rime; thick tighter – colored 5apwood. It ranged from the coast of Massachusetts to Florida.

Hop Hornbeam, Ostryo uirginitM, also called Iron wood

Diameter up to Very heavy; very hard; very strong in bending and in endwise compression; stiH; very high m shock resistance; durable; light brown tinged with red to nearly white; a thick pale sapwood of forty years or more. It ranged from western New England to nor them Florida*

Cheat Laurel, Rhododendron maximum, also called Rose Bay

Diameter Heavy; hard; strong; somewhat htittle; fine-grained; light

brown, It ranged from Nova Scotia through New Hampshire and southern New England and eastern New York.

Sugar Maple, Acer secchantm Marsh., also called Rock Maple (of "Hard” group)

Diameter Heavy; hard; strong; close-grained; tough; umaily straight­

grained (occasionally curly – or wavy-grained or bird’s-eye); very srrong in bending and endwise Compression; stiff; In git in shock resistance; works Well under Idols; turns well: Stays smooth under abrasion; takes a high polish; takes stain satisfac­torily; splits radially; glues medium well; light reddish brown. It ranged from Nova Scotia to northern Georgia.

Black МАРЫ, Acer nigrum Michx, (of “Hard" group)

Diameter up 10 jSimilir [о iic AcrT saaharum. Ii ringed from Montreal to the valley of Cold River, New Hampshire, through western Vermont and Massa­chusetts and northwestern Connecticut.

Red Маріь, Acer itiktum L., also called Scarlet Maple (of “Soft” group)

Diameter * Very heavy; dose-grained; not strong; usually straight-grained

(sometimes curly-grained); moderately hard to hard; moderately weak to strong in bending and in endwise compression; timber to stiff; mod era tel у high in shock resistance; works well under tools; glues satisfactorily; takes 1 smooth finish; light brown often slightly tinged with red. It ranged from Newfoundland to Florida.

Silver Matle, Am UKcharimm L. [of “Soft" group)

Diameter j’4′. Hard; strong; close-grained; easily worked; rather brittle; pale brown; thick sapwood offorry tofifry years’ growth. It tanged front New Bruns­wick through western Vermont and central Massachusetts.