Agriculture from nature

1.1 Nature

Nature is the set of all entities and forces that constitute the territory. It is the natural world without mankind or civilization [10]. The natural world is the background matrix where humans have evolved during a long period of time, leading to rurality and urbanity as a complement to wildland [11, 12]. Since the presocratic time of Anaxagoras, it is stated that nothing is born or dies, but that everything emerges from preexisting entities and elements; just as it happens in Nature, which when artificialized, is transformed into a cultural landscape. Natural resources are the supply source of our civilization and act as the life support for our domain of existence [13]. This is the reason why the resources should be sustainably managed and maintained, turning the agricultural activities into a main component. Complementary, ecosystem is a concept that allows placing and integrating the various disciplines that transform the agronomic sciences into a transdisciplinary dialog. Recently, cultural landscape emerges as a strong concept. It develops from the territorial stakeholders in a certain cultural context integrating the various sustainability and development dimensions. All of this arises from a social-cultural coevolutionary process with nature, and from the stakeholders with their surroundings.

Territory may be conceived as a "land or aquatic volume or area belonging to a farm, county, province, region or nation" [14]. The territory is used by society, originating from the interaction of three main components: nature, society and technology. Nature comes before man, what grants it a different evolutionary meaning. Man develops culture as a way to establish a relationship with the world, gradually organizing growing and complex structures integrating ethnics, politics and labor, among others, generating as a result the social structure. From the resulting integration of nature with social structure emerges technology as an articulating component for both. This process gives birth to a territorial system which in time becomes an integral unit [14, 15].

Cataldi, an italian mathematician and designer during the XVI-XVII centuries, states that man modifies nature until finally transforming it into a cultural landscape. As a result, he generates a sustainable or unsustainable system depending on the behavior of the people, and ultimately, on the type of activities carried out by the stakeholders.