Characteristics of the species used in the transplantation

Pinus pinea L. (Stone pine or umbrella pine):

Stone pine grows in the Mediterranean countries and their picturesque shape of straight trunk and domed crown. Leaves are in pairs (Brain and Valerie Proudley, 1976). This tree grows in native to south-west Europe around the Mediterranean to Greece and Asia. The seeds are eaten raw, roasted like peanuts or added to stews a ragout, a traditional Italian dish. Remains of husks have been found in Roman camps in Britain, indicating a long history of their use. Height may reach 30 m (100 ft) but in the open it forms a much lower umbrella-shaped tree. Flowers open in June, males golden and clustered, females pale yellowish green, about 1-2 cm (1/2 in) long. Cones are large, about 2-5 cm (5 in) long and heavy. They remain closed for 3 years. Needles are dark green, thick, slightly twisted and pointed. They are in pairs and often rather sparse. Bark is reddish brown with deep dark cracks forming long plates (Roger, 1979).

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Cedrus libani A. Rich. (Lebanon cedar):

Lebanon cedar is native to Taurus (south Anatolia) and near east (Lebanon). The trees are planted as an ornamental in Europe and N. America. This is the familiar slow-growing tree of our parks and large gardens. Younger ages, it is pyramidal in shape gradually becoming flat-topped with age. The widespread branches of clear gren foliage sometimes suffer damage during heavy falls of snow and should be propped where possible (Brain and Valerie Proudley, 1976). It is height to 24-36 m (80-120 ft). Male flowers are abundant 1cm (1/2 in) and pale green through the summer expanding to 5 cm (2 in) to shed pollen in November. Females appear in November and develop in to large purplish green cones 9-15 cm (3.5-6in) which taper to the top. Foliage is made up of dark green needles up to 2cm (3/4in) long. Young twigs are almost hairless (Roger, 1979).

Lebanon cedars grow at elevations of 4,264-6,888 ft. They grow best in deep soil on slopes facing the sea. The trees require a lot of light and about 40 inches (1000 mm) of rain a year. They form open forests with a low undergrowth of grasses (Anonymous, 2012e)

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Finns nigra Arnold. (Black pine):

Black pine grows in native to Austria, Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece and Anatolia. It is planted in Britain for shelter and for ornament. Height may reach over 30 m (100 ft) in the forest. Flowers open in late May, males is golden yellow, females is red, about 0.5 cm (1/4 in) long. Cones are 5-7,5 cm (2-3 in) long and the scales open to release winged seeds. They are arranged in pairs in dense clusters separated by bare lengths of twig. (Roger, 1979). The rough bark is brown to dark brown and the cones solitary or in clusters up to 8 cm (3 in.) long. It is a useful shelter belt tree for dry, chalky soil (Anthony, 1973).

Its habit is broad and vigorous and the long needles are of a delight ful, dark green colour, givig this pine a sound and luxuriant look all the year round. It tolerates wind and poor soil, and will grow most attractive in a light, sunny localitiy but needs plenty of space in order to unfold in all its glory (Eigil, 1973).

Malns floribnnda Sieb. (Japanese or Shoey Crab Apple):

A Japanese tree, probably a hybrid rather than parks and streets, as it flowers profusely every year. It has height to about 6-9 m (20-30 ft). Flowers open in late April and early May, each about 2,5-3cm (1-1,25in) wide in clusters of 4-7. Fruits are about 2cm (3/4in) in diameter, ripening yellow in October (Roger, 1979).

They would look nice as specimens on the lawn or with other bushes in the front garden, where they give the entire road a festive look in the spring. The trees can be bought in the shape of ordinary bushes or standarts. In many instances a young bush specimen will grow into a handsome tree with many slightly cooked trunks of much better effect then one long, straight trunk. This should be as for ordinary apple trees, i. e. good, deep soil, rich in humus without stagnant water in winter. Pruning should consist of a suitable thinning-out of the branches at an interval of a few years, always done in such a manner as to maintain then natural shape of the top (Eigil, 1973).

Frnnns avinm L. (Sweet Cherry):

A very fast-growing, ornamental tree which will not produce berries owing to its double flowers (Eigil, 1973). Its fruits trend to be bitter but it is one of the parents of most European cultivated cherries. The wood is reddish-brown with a very straight grain, and used in cabinet making, and for anything requiring a straight bore such as pipes and musical instruments. To be found in hedges and woods, gardens and parks in most of Europe, also cultivated and naturalised in eastern N. America. It has height to 18 m (60 ft) or more. Flowers open in mid April, each about 2-5cm (1in) across in clusters on previous year’s growth. Fruits are about 2 cm (3/4 in) across and may be light or blackish red, sweet or bitter. Leaves have stems red above and yellowish beneath with 2 or more glands or lumps near the base of the leaf blade and colour yellow and red in autumn. Bark is reddish Brown and clearly marked by lenticels in horizontal lines and broken by large cracks (Roger, 1979).

Ficea pnnges Engelm. (Colorado spruce or Blue spruce):

Colorado spruce grows in native to the Rocky Mountains in western N. America, particularly at the south end of the range grown for ornaments and sometimes for timber in northern and central Europe. Height to about 30 m (100 ft) but may reach 45 m (150 ft) in favourable conditions. Flowers open in May, males about 2 cm (4/ 5 in) long, females twice that. Cones are a distinctive pale colour, with wavy toothed scales. They are about 7,5-10 cm (3-4 in) long. Needles are 4-sided with whitish-blue buds on each face. They are spine tipped when young, becoming blunter with age. Bark is purplish-grey, breaking into coarse plates. (Roger, 1979).

They are seldom as high in cultivation where the fine glaucous foliage forms are more common. Because of their brilliant colouring these named clones are some of the most desirable of conifers suppliers being hard put to meet the demand for established specimens (Brain and Valerie Proudley, 1976).

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Fig. 11. Malus floribunda selected in order to transplantation.