Corridors and connectivity

Habitat loss and isolation, results of spatial processes such as fragmentation, dissection, perforation, shrinkage and attrition, necessitate the establishment of connections within the landscape. In the face of these challenges, it is ever more fundamental to preserve the integrity of landscape corridors, such as wildlife corridors and river systems can as well be thought as barriers to wildlife movement, as in the example of roadways, railroad and canals (Dramstad et al., 1996). Pattern and scale can be used to assess the integrity of a landscape (Table 3).

Corridors

Barriers

Stream and River Corridors

For species movement

Road and windreak barriers

Controls on corridors functions

Roads and other "trough"

Stream corridor and

Corridor gap effectiveness

corridors

dissolved substances

Structural versus floristic similarity

Wind erosion and its

Corridor width for main

control

stream

Stepping Stones

Corridor width for a river Connectivity of a stream

Stepping stone connectivity Distance between stepping stones Loss of a stepping stone Cluster of stepping stones

corridor

Table 3. Catagorize of corridors and connectivity

2.4 Mosaics

As abovementioned, the connectivity of the corridors within a landscape is an indicator of its ecological condition. These corridors often form networks of connectivity, circuitry, and mesh size and are useful for planners to assist movements across a land mosaic (Dramstad et al., 1996) (Table 4).

Networks

Fragmentation and Pattern

Scale

• Network connectivity

• Loss of total versus

• Grain size of mosaics

and circuitry

interior habitat

• Animal perceptions of

• Loops and alternatives

• Fractal patches

scale of fragmentation

• Corridor density and mesh size

• Suburbanization,

• Specialists and generalists

• Intersection effect

exotics, and

• Mosaic patterns for

• Species in a small connected patch

• Dispersal and small connected patch

protected areas

multihabitat species

Table 4. Networks, fragmentation and pattern, and scale