Landscape planning

Подпись: Inventory and evalu • Record of conserv pressures, protecti opportunities • Assessment of ecc compatibility of exi ation ation assets - Inventory, on, development logical and aesthetic sting and planned uses Planned objectives • Development of ot appropriate, altern development of na H jectives and, where ative objectives for the ture and the landscape nJ Planned measures | • Deduction of requirements and measures needed to achieve the objectives • Alternatives to aid conflict resolution • Notes on implementation Подпись: PLAN • Regional Landscape Progr* • Landscape Structure Plan • Local Landscape Plan (Lan • Open Space Plan (Grunordn amme (Landschaftsprogramm) Landschaftsrahmenplan) dschaftsplan) ungsplan) Implementation Executive agencies Pathways • Conservation authorities • Integration into town and • Other relevant government country planning departments (Bauleitplanung) • Municipalities • Sectoral plans • Conservation organisations • Activities of relevant asso- • Public institutions ciations, private individuals • Private individuals • Connection with economic • development Review of progress (Update • Documentation of experience • Assessment of success • Amendment of objectives an 1 s, measures, results, changes 1 measures, where appropriate

In Germany, landscape planning, based on the Federal Nature Conservation Act, is the planning instrument for nature conservation and landscape management as opposed to other planning instruments and administrative procedures (The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety 1998; Bfn 2002). It makes important contributions to the conservation of natural resources at all levels (local, district or entire regional state) and for full-coverage, sustainable conservation and long-term development of nature and landscapes in the built and non-built environment (see Fig. 3).

In the different steps of the planning process a lot of information are needed to analyze and evaluate the current state of nature and the landscape, the functional capacity of the natural environment, the scenic qualities of the landscape, the development potential and the existing and foreseeable problems and conflicts with other uses (e. g. agriculture, traffic, housing) (Riedel & Lange, 2001; Jessel & Tobias, 2002; BfN, 2002; von Haaren, 2004;. a. o.). Based on that information a guiding vision and a set of objectives and measures have to be developed together with all stakeholders. Scenarios and visualizations are helpful to explain the details and the timescale for implementation (Lange, 1994; Ervin & Hasbrouck, 2001; Lange, 2002; Appleton & Lovett, 2003; Bishop & Lange, 2005; Paar, 2006; Warren – Kretzschmar & Tiedtke, 2005; Sheppard et al. 2008; Schroth, 2010; Schwarz-v. Raumer, 2011). At the end of the planning process the implementation and review (sometimes updates) are the most important tasks (BfN 2002).