Local residents’ expectations of and suggestions for new tourism planning and management strategies in Amasra

According to the participants, the activities that could take place in Amasra and its surroundings are visits to the historical and cultural buildings and spaces (54%), hiking (17%) and gastronomical activities (seafood restaurants) (17%). In terms of issues that should be prioritized in urban planning for tourism development in Amasra, 41% of the participants stated that building maintenance and repair should be done, 29% of the participants stated that parking problems should be overcome and 10% indicated the need for maintenance and repair of the city walls. The three most common suggestions in order to extend the duration of stay of daily visitors are as follows: Package programs should be prepared for accommodation facilities (e. g. boat tours, trekking, etc.), the relationship between Kastamonu-Bartin Kure Mountains National Park and Amasra should be established, and trekking routes should be created connection the historical center of Amasra and the natural and cultural assets of its surrounding area. Among the participants’ opinions regarding the future of Amasra, the first preference was protection of fishing village identity, the second was protection of the port town identity and the third was qualitative and quantitative improvement in public spaces and green areas (beaches, parks, playgrounds, sports fields, etc.) (Table 9).

According to the participants, the responsibility for the planned development of tourism in Amasra is of local adminstrations (80%), local residents (46%), and civil society organizations (38%).

The results of the Chi-square test indicated that whether new urban development is compatible with the natural and historical pattern of Amasra varies according to the level of education. 33% of the participants whose level of education is primary school stated that new urban development is compatible with the historical and natural structure of the city, while 85% of the participants who have a university degree found it incompatible (Table 10a). It was observed that as the participants’ level of education increases, the new development is considered incompatible with the natural and historical pattern in Amasra.

I.

Preference

II.

Preference

III.

Preference

Percent (%)

Activities in Amasra and its surroundings

No response

1

21

31

Visits to historical and cultural buildings and spaces

54

3

4

Water sports

9

13

5

Hiking

11

17

7

Picnic

1

5

2

Nature observation

4

7

4

Gastronomical activities (seafood restaurants)

7

12

17

Purchase of local food

3

9

4

Visits to local handicraft workshops /purchase of products

3

9

11

Boat trips

4

4

15

Other

3

Issues of priority in inner city urban

planning for tourism development in Amasra

No response

1

20

27

Maintenance and repair in historical buildings

41

6

7

Maintenance and repair in the city walls and its environs

10

17

7

Overcoming parking problem

29

20

18

Raising standards of accommodation facilities

3

16

14

Eliminating the factors causing visual pollution in the city

3

9

9

Natural and historical patterns should be compatible

9

6

7

Planned development of summer houses should be ensured

2

3

2

Improvement in public spaces and green areas

3

9

Other

2

Measures to be taken to increase the duration of stay of daily visitors in Amasra

No response

1

34

45

Establishing relationship between Amasra and Kastamonu-Bartin Kure Mountains National Park

20

5

9

Establishing routes to nearby bays by boat tours

8

11

10

Establishing organic agriculture areas in the environs; visits to these areas and accommodation facilities

6

5

4

Increasing the attractiveness of river tourism by establishing the relationship between the Bartin River and Amasra

7

9

8

Preparing package programs in accommodation facilities (e. g. boat trips, trekking, etc.)

33

17

9

Creating trekking routes between the historical city center and the close-by areas with natural and cultural value

20

19

12

Other

5

3

Opinions on the future of Amasra

No response

1

39

52

Protection of fishing village identity

30

10

1

Revitalizing tourism and commerce

28

12

2

Protection of historical port town identity

19

16

11

Increase in the hard coal activities

3

4

Protection of archeological and historical assets

11

12

14

Increase in the number of summer houses

2

2

Qualitative and quantitative improvement in public spaces and green areas (beaches, parks, playgrounds, sports fields, etc.)

8

5

16

Other

1

1

Table 9. Local residents’ expectations regarding the new tourism planning and management strategies in Amasra.

In terms of the relationship between the participants’ education level and opinions about the city walls, historic buildings and archaeological artifacts discovered in excavations, 33% of the participants with primary school degree considered the historical structure of the city as a factor restricting land use and building height, while 33% of the participants with the same level of education stated that it is a barrier to urban development in Amasra. 80% of the participants with high school degree and 73% with university degree stated that the historical structure of the city is a significant historical and cultural value that contributes to Amasra (Table 10b). Thus, it was found out that the participants’ awareness regarding the historical and cultural values increases as education level increases.

In terms of the relationship between the educational background of the participants and opinions on the future of Amasra, it was observed that the participants with primary school degree supported that the fishing village identity of the city should be protected (67%), followed by revitalization of tourism and commerce in the city (33%). While the participants with high school degree (20%) and university degree (20%) stated that the historic port town identity of Amasra should be protected in the future, the participants who graduated from high school (20%) stated the need for qualitative and quantitative improvement in public spaces and green areas. In addition, the participants with university degree indicated that archaeological and historical characteristics of the city should be protected (18%). It was observed that as the participants’ educational level increases, the opinions favoring the archeological and historical assets of the city and its identity as a historical port town are more prominent among opinions regarding the future of Amasra. As the participants did not express a significant opinion about the number of summer houses and the increase in the hard coal activities, it could be furthered that these two factors have a negative impact on the city (Table 10c).

The problems faced by the participants with tourism as source of income are lack of training in the field of tourism (35%), lack of local residents’ awareness about tourism (22%), lack of standards in the tourism sector in Amasra (14%), and insufficient financial resources (14%) (Table 11).

Educational background

Table 10.a. Whether new urban development is compatible with the natural and historical pattern of Amasra

Primary

school

Secondary

school

High

school

University

No response

n

0

0/

/0

Yes

n

1

1

9

9

0/

/0

33

17

30

15

No

n

2

5

21

51

0/

/0

67

83

70

85

X2= 103.193*** p<0.001

Table 10.b. Local residents’ perspectives on the city walls, historical buildings and historical artifacts discovered by archeological excavations in Amasra

No response

n

1

0/

/0

2

They limit land use and building height

n

1

1

4

6

0/

/0

33

17

13

10

They are obstacles to urban development in Amasra

n

1

1

1

9

0/

/0

33

17

3

15

They are important historical and cultural values contributing to Amasra

n

1

4

24

44

0/

/0

33

67

80

73

Other

n

1

0/

/0

3

X2= 58.084*** p<0.001

Table 10.c. Opinions on the future of Amasra

No response

n

0/

%

Protection of the fishing village identity

n

2

4

10

14

0/

%

67

67

33

23

Revitalization of tourism and commerce

n

1

8

19

0/

%

33

27

32

Protection of the historical port town identity

n

1

6

12

0/

%

17

20

20

Increase in the hard coal facilities

n

0/

%

Protection of archeological and historical assets

n

11

0/

%

18

Increase in the number of summer houses

n

2

0/

%

3

Improvement in public spaces and green areas both qualitatively and quantitatively

n

1

6

1

0/

%

17

20

2

Other

n

1

0/

%

2

X2= 126.081*** p<0.001

Table 10 a. b.c. Comparison of local residents’ perspectives in terms of educational background.

Primary problems in tourism

Source of income

No

response

Financial

difficulties

Lack of education in tourism

Limitations due to Amasra’s status as a protection site

Lack of attention from local administration

Lack of standards in tourism sector

Lack of branding

Lack of local

residents’

awareness

regarding

tourism

Other

n

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

Tourism

1

3

5

14

13

35

1

3

1

3

5

14

2

5

8

22

1

3

X2= 88.519*** p<0.001

Table 11. Primary problems indicated by participants with tourism as source of income.

Positive impact of tourism in Amasra varies according to age groups of the participants. The age group 41-60+ stated that tourism contributes to the economy of Amasra, while the age group 21-40 stated tourism contributes to the promotion of tourism in Amasra. The participants showed no awareness with regards to the contributions of tourism to ensuring the continuity of the local handicrafts (Table 12).

Positive effects of tourism in Amasra

Age

No

response

Creating

comfortable

environments

through

landscape

design

Promotion of Amasra

Protection

of

cultural

heritage

Contribution to the

economy of Amasra

Ensuring

the

continuity

of

handicrafts

Other

n

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

n

%

n

0/

n

0/

15-20

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

21-30

2

6

4

11

18

51

1

3

10

29

0

0

31-40

4

16

2

8

12

48

0

7

28

0

0

41-50

0

1

3

12

46

0

13

50

0

0

51-60

0

0

2

22

0

7

78

0

0

60 +

0

0

0

1

25

3

75

0

0

Table 12. Perspectives on the positive effects of tourism in Amasra in terms of age groups.

X2= 43.612*** p<0.001