What is urban green space?

Urban green spaces are urban areas which were occurred that, natural or semi natural ecosystems were converted urban spaces by human influence. Urban green spaces provide the connection between urban and nature. In this context, green areas are reflection in the urban spaces of natural or near natural areas surrounding the cities. The green fields are continuation of mostly landscapes around the city. Besides, urban green areas provide lots of ecological benefits which were established especially needs of urban people.

The increase of spare time of urban resident’s and pressure of work and study enhances their demand of green space. Generally, the determining of necessary work time and to have more time make the leisure activities, which help people engage in self-creation activity and relaxation of body and soul, possible. This special time pay attention to two kinds of activities: people deal with nature; the other that between people. People’s desire for fresh air, natural views and natural attractions, which reflects people’s natural perception; the

latter reflects their social behaviour. During the long historical time period, human has used a kind of ability to appreciate nature, to get the flavour of life and formed some psychological processes dependency on nature. This kind of feeling and perception through the realization of a better build and strengthen self-identification. In addition, these feelings reinforce mutual understanding and trust, strengthen the relationship with each other and may be responsible. All this really help to achieve self-worth. This is the most powerful reason why the communication in green area can never replace that in open public area. People begin to realize the crucial mechanism of urban green space system is to transform the active mechanic space into ideal state, i. e. form the value of environment mechanism, in relation to people’s life (Wuqiang et al., 2012).

This urges urban spatial pattern to develop a kind of diversity system to relate other spatial shapes and itself can provide city with ecological safety value (Wuqiang et al., 2012). The requirement of green space, one of the main drives of world city system: most of the multinational corporations will choose the areas of headquarter and branches by comparing the urban environment and landscape of many cities. And of course, the favourable urban system, i. e. embodiment of the urban spatial pattern based on the integrate green space system, can attract more attention of the investors (Baycan-Levent and Nijkamp, 2009; Wuqiang et al., 2012)

Regional green space is based on the protection and optimization of natural ecological system and actually refers to continuous suburban green space of large size. It not only improves the whole ecological environment of the city region and its neighbours, and provides important support of urban environmental improvement. Furthermore, introduction of suburban green space into city also acts as the base of ecological balance. In practice, problems of urban woods and citied agriculture should be paid sufficient attention (Wuqiang et al., 2012). Green space systems require improvement of the spatial pattern of urban green space. To identify potential improvements, we compared the predicted development of planned cultivated and natural green spaces (Kong et al., 2010). Urban green space systems includes protection of existing green spaces, creation of new spatial forms, and restoration and maintenance of connectivity among diverse green spaces. To maintain or restore connectivity, planners must identify the best habitat and potential corridors by considering distances and the barriers between habitats (impedance) posed by the landscape and land use (Kong et al., 2010)

Urban green spaces provide many functions in urban context that benefits people’s quality of life. There is therefore a wide consensus about the importance and value of urban green spaces in cities towards planning and constructing sustainable or eco-cities of 21st century. Steadily growing traffic and urban heat, especially in the developing countries is not only damaging the environment but also incur social and economic costs. The ecological benefits bestowed in green spaces which range from protecting and maintaining the biodiversity to helping in the mitigation of change cannot be overlooked in today’s sustainable planning. Inner-city green spaces are especially important for improving air quality though uptake of pollutant gases and particulates which are responsible for respiratory infections. Green spaces also help in reduction of the energy costs of cooling buildings effectively. Furthermore, due to their amenity and aesthetic, green spaces increase property value. However, the most sought benefits of green spaces in a city are the social and psychological benefits. Urban green spaces, especially public parks and gardens provide resources for relaxation and recreation. Ideally this helps in emotional healing (therapeutic) and physical relaxation. In order to meet social and psychological needs of citizens satisfactorily, green spaces in the city should be easily accessible and in adequately optimal in quality and quantity. Green spaces need to be uniformly distributed throughout the city area, and the total area occupied by green spaces in the city should be large enough to accommodate the city population needs (Haq, 2011).

The provision, design, management and protection of urban green spaces are at the top of the agenda of sustainability and liveability. Urban green spaces play a key role in improving the liveability of our towns and cities. The quality and viability of cities largely depend on the design, management and maintenance of green as well as open and public spaces in order to provide their role as an important social and visual way. Urban green spaces are not only an important component in housing areas, but also in business, leisure, retail and other commercial developments (Baycan-Levent, 2002).