Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)

The material. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, or ABS, is tough, resilient, and easily molded. It is usually opaque, although some grades can now be transparent, and it can be given vivid colors. ABS-PVC alloys are tougher than standard ABS and, in self-extinguishing grades, are used for the cas­ings of power tools.

Composition

(CH2-CH-C6H4L

General properties

Density

1010

– 1210

kg/m3

Price

2.3

– 2.6

USD/kg

Mechanical properties

Young’s modulus

1.1

– 2.9

GPa

Yield strength (elastic limit)

18.5

– 51

MPa

Tensile strength

27.6

– 55.2

MPa

Elongation

1.5

– 100

%

Hardness—Vickers

5.6

– 15.3

HV

Fatigue strength at 107 cycles

11

– 22.1

MPa

Fracture toughness

1.19

– 4.29

MPa. m1/2

ABS allows detailed moldings, accepts color well, and is nontoxic and tough. Ecoproperties: material

Annual world production

*5.6 X 106

– 5.7 X 106

tonne/yr

Reserves

*1.48 X 108

– 1.5 X 108

tonne

Embodied energy, primary production

*91

– 102

MJ/kg

CO2 footprint, primary production

*3.3

– 3.6

kg/kg

Water usage

*108

– 324

l/kg

Eco-indicator

380

– 420

millipoints/kg

Ecoproperties: processing

Polymer molding energy

*10

– 12

MJ/kg

Polymer molding CO2 footprint

*0.8

– 0.96

kg/kg

Polymer extrusion energy

*3.2

– 4.6

MJ/kg

Polymer extrusion CO2 footprint

*0.31

– 0.37

kg/kg

Recycling

Embodied energy, recycling

*38

– 43

MJ/kg

CO2 footprint, recycling

*1.39

– 1.5

kg/kg

Recycle fraction in current supply Recycle mark

0.5

A

7

Other

– 1

%

Typical uses. Safety helmets; camper tops; automotive instrument panels and other interior components; pipe fittings; home-security devices and hous­ings for small appliances; communications equipment; business machines; plumbing hardware; automobile grilles; wheel covers; mirror housings; refrig­erator liners; luggage shells; tote trays; mower shrouds; boat hulls; large com­ponents for recreational vehicles; weather seals; glass beading; refrigerator breaker strips; conduit; pipe for drain-waste-vent (DWV) systems.