Plant distances are suggested as numbers of plants per area, as proposed for wetland and shallow-water plants in Table 8.4. These can be adapted in practice, depending upon factors such as the period of time until a dense ground cover is to be reached, whether the vegetation is established by sowing, planting or a mix of both methods, the available financial budget or the desired proportions between tall and low plants.
The habitat’s ‘reed-swamp’ or ‘tall forb community’ tend towards a density of 5-7 plants/m2. For rampant growers, 1-3 plants/m2 is sufficient in monoculture planting: these can be optionally combined with 4-6 ground covers. Raised-bog and oligotrophic fen vegetation can be planted with up to 20 plants/m2 because of their slow growth. Between a Sphagnum carpet, 5-10 perennials are sufficient. Not included in these calculations are ‘scattered plants’ and sown species.