The character and composition of wetland communities is closely related to water depth. It is possible to distinguish five main zones of aquatic vegetation in artificially sealed ponds (Figure 8.13):
– zone 1—external edges: normal soil without contact with the waterbody. Plants should
be chosen that visually fit the wetland character but ecologically correspond with the conditions in the vicinity of the pond
– zone 2—wetland area: permanently wet soil, but without being flooded. Here
perennials of wet meadows, fens and bogs can be established
– zone 3—swamp area: between about 10 cm above and 10 cm under water level—the
place for emergent aquatic plants of the reed zone
– zone 4—shallow water area: a permanent water level of 10 to 40 cm is an ideal position
for several emergent aquatic plants or small growing water lilies
– zone 5—water lily area: more than 70 cm depth—most floating and submerged plants.
We will now consider each of these zones in greater detail. The species identified in the lists will not form vegetation displays that copy nature, but rather will resemble natural plant communities, improving their appearance by emphasising conspicuous flowering forbs and reducing or excluding aggressive grasses. The plant lists are arranged in Plant Sociability categories. The proposed amount of plants within each category can be distributed among the listed species more or less regularly or according to intended proportions of colours, textures, shapes and other aesthetical criteria. All plants mentioned in the lists below are hardy in Central Europe to at least minus 25°C. A few exceptions requiring protection are marked.