Waterfalls, fountains, artificial springs and streams

The zone around constructions with intense water movement has to be fixed with stony substrate, such as a gravel or pebble covering, to protect it from erosion. Between these stones, ruderals susceptible to competition with other plants can be used. In oligotrophic conditions these can be Pinguicula grandiflora or Primula frondosa. Mesotrophic sites along streams allow the establishment of species with higher demands in nutrients because of the constantly moving water. Tall plants should be used sparingly and the vegetation should not cover the substrate completely, in order to accentuate the dynamic character of these water features. Recommended species along streams are Trollius europaeus, Caltha palustris, Cardamine pratensis, Myosotis palustris, Veronica beccabunga and tussockforming Carex species.