The research sites are in four watersheds that were selected based on their location close to the national parks: Cisadane (CS), Ciliwung (CL), Cimandiri (CM), and Cibuni (CB) watersheds. In addition, we also considered their orientation, lying from south to north (Fig. 17.2). Although CB is located a little far from GGP National Park, it has actually been impacted because there are many main access roads from this area to the core of its national park.
To understand the conditions within pekarangan, the method for this research began with a sampling design for respondent selection. Then, interviewing by questionnaire and pekarangan measurements followed (Fig. 17.3).
Fig. 17.3 The framework is an assessment of the basics of landscape ecology approach: structure, function, change, and culture: starting from the macroscale of two national parks and gradually reaching microscale on pekarangan size