Activities, Financial Mechanisms,
and Provincial Perspectives in Indonesia
Ima Yudin Rayaningtyas and Nobukazu Nakagoshi
Abstract Climate change has become the international issue of the moment. Because most of Indonesia’s emissions result from deforestation, land degradation, inappropriate land uses, and land use conversion, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD)+ has become an eminent priority for Indonesia. This study primarily draws on insights from national and subnational experiences on REDD+ readiness in Indonesia. A literature review, web-based searches, a questionnaire, and in-depth interviews were applied to compile data. Comprehending the REDD+ current status and the challenge of a REDD+ financial mechanism were obtained from reviewing secondary data. The provincial level perspective on REDD+ was acquired through assessment of the questionnaire and in-depth interview results. This study showed that REDD+ issues are evolving quickly and several established regulations are as yet inadequate to cope with REDD+ uncertainties. Hence, remaining issues related to strategy, capacity building, methodology, regulation, and financing schemes need to be developed and strengthened to succeed in REDD+ implementation. In addition, this study revealed that the knowledge level on REDD+ issues between stakeholders at the province level was comparable. However, the stakeholders at the province level had a tendency to have different opinions related to REDD+ issues.
Keywords Deforestation • Knowledge level • Opinion • Readiness • REDD+ working group • REDD+
I. Y. Rayaningtyas (*) • N. Nakagoshi
Graduate School for International Development and Cooperation, Hiroshima University, 1-5-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8529, Japan e-mail: rayaningtyas@gmail. com
N. Nakagoshi and J. A. Mabuhay (eds.), Designing Low Carbon Societies in Landscapes, Ecological Research Monographs, DOI 10.1007/978-4-431-54819-5_19, © Springer Japan 2014
Approximately 15-20 % of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are ascribed to deforestation and forest degradation. In addressing this problem, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) established an international mechanism using carbon market or financial incentives to reduce CO2 emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, which is referred to as REDD+. REDD+ is becoming one of the main pillars of a post-2012 international climate regime (Corbera and Schroeder 2011). REDD has also the potential to reduce emissions generated by the forest sector and simultaneously creating sustainable development benefits for communities in tropical countries (Cerbu etal. 2011).
At the moment, REDD+ is considered as the most promising mechanism for conserving tropical forest, even though after 6 years of discussions and negotiations the REDD+ mechanisms is yet to be endorsed (Venter and Koh 2012). REDD+ projects currently face uncertainty over future demand for carbon credits, the potential for inconsistent donor support in the long term, carbon market volatility, investor preference for low-cost emissions mitigation over co-benefits, and the possibility of a short-lived REDD+ mechanism (Phelps et al. 2011). The success of REDD will ultimately depend on the existence of national arrangements that can deliver emission reductions at scale (Streck 2010).
As mentioned by UN-REDD Programme, Indonesia’s major emissions result from deforestation, land degradation, inappropriate land uses, and land use conversion. REDD+ is a good start to tackling all these issues, but it is not a short-term solution; it will most likely involve massive political trade-offs, and it will not be implemented on a large scale in the near future (Lederer 2012). The highest deforestation rate in Indonesia accounted for approximately 2.83 million ha/year and occurred during 1997-2000 because of forest fire. Afterward, the deforestation rate dropped off to 1.08 million ha/year throughout 2001-2003. Unfortunately, for the period of 2004-2006, the deforestation rate increased to 1.17 million ha/year. Hence, REDD+ has become an eminent priority for Indonesia.
Because the REDD+ initiatives are positively noticed by many stakeholders, Indonesia must encounter many challenges to enable REDD+ implementation (Indonesia Task Force 2012). During the readiness phase, 2009-2012, Indonesia needs to prepare methodologies and policies to facilitate REDD+ implementation in Indonesia. However, it is still insufficient, and there are many remaining elements that need to be developed, strengthened, and synchronized to confront REDD+ full implementation post 2012. Up to now, the scientific reference on REDD+ is still focusing on international and national issues. Discussion on subnational or provincial experience on REDD+ readiness is still limited. The establishment of appropriate and complementary REDD mechanisms at the international and national level as well as the establishment of appropriate and complementary projects at the subnational level will determine REDD success (Blom et al. 2010). Therefore, this study examines REDD+ activities at the national and provincial level in Indonesia.