Mechanical Connections

Hardware includes square, star, flat-head, and Phillips tip drivers and stainless steel, brass, or wall – board screws (Figure 8.44). Hardware also includes bolts, nuts, washers, pulls, full extension glides, casters, special cabinet hinges, or plated continu­ous hinges. Modez clips are useful in mounting panels and heavy objects to a vertical surface. Similar to the French cleat, which relies on gravity and two angled elements to secure the attach­ment, the modez clip is a two-part metal device that enables one element to fit into the other; then the two elements lock together via a keyhole with a simple sliding action.

Screws

■ Wood screws are made of brass, steel, or bronze. Steel wood screws are referred to as bright, and may be blued, lacquered, galvanized, chrome plated, or anodized.

■ Drywall screws are specialized screws that have a bugle head designed to attach wallboard to wood studs; however, they are a versatile construction fastener for furniture work as well as for most mechanical attachments. The length of the screw’s shank is the main determinant of holding strength in a wood connection, not the thickness of the shank.

■ Machine screws are available up to % inch in diameter. These fasteners are often used with nuts to secure connections. They can be considered a hybrid between a screw and a bolt.

■ Square drive screws and drivers are preferred by many craftspeople because they drive well, the heads won’t strip out, and the screws have small, relatively attrac­tive heads; the last is important, when considering them as an "expressed joint" detail.

Hardware, glides, latches, and casters need to perform well. The best possible quality ought to drive the selection.

Washers

■ Fender washers are similar to plain washers but have a large outside diameter and are used to distribute forces that are applied when tightening.

■ Finishing washers are contoured. They are especially engineered for oval-head screws and have a "finished" look. The help prevent the head of the screw from pulling through the material.

■ Lock washers (split lock washers) have a cut ring and are bent in a helical shape, causing the washer to exert a spring force between the fastener’s head and the material’s substrate.

■ Plain washers (flat washers) are a flat annulus or ring-shaped device, used to pro­tect the joined component and to spread the load of a screwed connection.

■ Tooth-lock washers are integrally and/or externally serrated. Bent teeth bite into the bearing surface upon tightening, which prevents the nut from turning and the fastening from loosening.

Drawer Glides

■ Bottom edge-mounted: These glides are mounted on the drawer side bottoms and to the cabinet interior. They are relatively easy to install but do not offer the full extension of side-mounted glides.

■ Central-mounted: These glides are mounted beneath the drawer center and are intended for lightweight applications.

■ Side-mounted: These glides are the most versatile in terms of extension, durability, and weight capacity. Side-mounted glides are mechanically secured to the side of the drawer and the cabinet interior. They typically require a Уг-inch depth for each side. Medium-duty (100 pounds) and heavy-duty (100-500) pound slides are available.