Social and psychological benefits

Recreation and Wellbeing

People satisfy most of their recreational needs within the locality where they live. Urban green spaces serve as a near resource for relaxation; provide emotional warmth. In Mexico City, the centrally located Chapultepec Park draws up to three million visitors a week who enjoy a wide variety of activities (Haq, 2011)


Fig. 11. Recreational activities on water surface, Altinpark, Ankara, Turkey (http://www. anfaaltinpark. com. tr/).


Human Health

People who were exposed to natural environment, the level of stress decreased rapidly as compared to people who were exposed to urban environment, their stress level remained high. Certainly, improvements in air quality due to vegetation have a positive impact on physical health with such obvious benefits as decrease in respiratory illnesses. The connection between people and nature is significance for everyday enjoyment, work productivity and general mental health (Haq, 2011)

6. References

Alm, L. E., 2007. Urban Green Structure A hidden resource, Baltic University Urban Forum Urban Management Guidebook V, Green Structures in the Sustainable City, Chalmers University of Technology, Editor: Dorota Wlodarczyk, Project part – financed by the European Union (European Regional Development Fund) within the BSR INTERREG III B Neighbourhood Programme.

Anonymous, 2010. A report by natural England and the campaign to protect rural England, PRE/Natural England 2010, ISBN 978-1-84754-160-4, CatalogueCode: NE196. Baycan-Levent, T. and Nijkamp, P., 2009. Planning and management of urban green spaces in Europe: Comparative analysis. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, 135: 1.

Baycan-Levent, T., 2002. Development and management of green spaces in European cities: a comparative analysis. Research Memorandum, 2002: 25.

Bolund, P. and Hunhammar, S., 1999, ‘Ecosystemservices in urban areas’, Ecological Economics 29, pp. 293-301.

Bowdler, S., 1999, ‘A study of Indigenousceremonial ("Bora") sites in eastern Australia’, paperpresented to Heritage Landscapes: Understanding Place and Communities, Southern Cross University, Lismore, November, 1999.

Byrne, J. Sipe, N., 2010. Green and open space planning for urban consolidation – A review of the literature and best practice, Urban Research Program, ISBN 978-1-921291-96-8.

C. Francis, "People Places; Design Guidelinesfor Urban Open Space, " Second Edition, John

WileyandSons, Hoboken, 1997.

D. Huang, C. C. Lu and G. Wang, "Integrated Management of Urban Green Space: The Case

in Guangzhou China, " 45th ISOCARP Congress 2009.

EDAW and Skyes Humphrey’s Consulting, 2008, ‘Creating Better Parks: Brimbank Open Space and Playground Policy and Plan’, EDAW and Skyes Humphrey’s Consulting, Brimbank, Melbourne.

Fernandez-Juricic, E. and Jokimaki, J., 2001, ‘A habitat islandapproachtoconservingbirdsin urban landscapes: case studies from southern and northern Europe’, Biodiversity and Conservation10, pp. 2023-43.

Fernandez-Juricic, E., 2000, ‘Bird community composition patterns in urban parks ofMadrid: the role of age, size andisolation’, Ecological Research15, pp. 373-83.

Haq, S. M. A., 2011. Urban green spaces and an integrative approach to sustainable environment. Journal of Environmental Protection, 2(5): 601-608.

Hellmund, P. C. and Smith, D., 2006. Designing Greenways : Sustainable Landscapes for Nature and People. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA. http://www. iadb. org/sds/doc/ENV109KKeipiE. pdf.

Kong, F., Yin, H., Nakagoshi, N. and Zong, Y., 2010. Urban green space network development for biodiversity conservation: Identification based on graph theory and gravity modeling. Landscape and urban planning, 95(1-2): 16-27.

L. Loures, R. Santos and P. Thomas, 2007. “Urban Parks and Sustainable Development: The case

study of Partimaocity, Portugal, ” Conference on Energy, Environment, Ecosystem and Sustainable Development, Agios Nikolaos, Greece

Low, S., Taplin, D. and Scheld, S., 2005. Rethinking Urban Parks : Public Space and Cultural Diversity. University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, USA.

M. Neuvonen, T. Sievanen, T. Susan and K. Terhi, 2007. "Accessto Green Areas and the

Frequency of Visits: A Case Study in Helsinki, " Elsevier: Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, Vol. 6, No. 4, pp. 235-247.

M. Sorensen, J. Smit, V. Barzettiand J. Williams, , 1997. "Good Practices for Urban Greening, " Inter American Development Bank.

Manlun, Y. 2003. Suitability Analysis of Urban Green Space System Based on GIS.

International Institute for Geo-information Science and Earth Observation. Masterthesis. Enschede, The Netherlands.

Manlun, Y., 2003. Suitability Analysis of Urban Green Space System Based on GIS, University of Twente, Netherlands, 90 pp.

Melles, S., Glenn, S. and Martin, K., 2003, ‘Urban bird diversity and landscape complexity: species environment associations along a multiscale habitat gradient’, Conservation Ecology 7, pp. [online].

P. Bolund and H. Sven, 1999. "Ecological Services in Urban Areas, " Elsevier Sciences: Ecological Economics, Vol. 29, pp. 293-301. doi:10. 1016/S0921-8009(99)00013-0 P. Grahn and U. A, 2003. Stigsdotter, "Landscape Planning and Stress, " Urban Forest: Urban for Urban Green, Vol. 2 pp. 001-018.

Swanwick, C., Dunnett, N. and Woolley, H., 2003, ‘Nature, role and value of green space in towns and cities: An overview’, Built Environment 29, pp. 94-106.

Turner, T., 1998. Landscape Planning and Environmental Impact Design. Routledge, Florence, KY, USA.

V. Heidt and M. Neef, 2008. "Benefits of Urban Space for Improving Urban Climate, " Ecology, Planning and Management of Urban Forests: International Perspective Ward, S., 2004. Planning and Urban Change (Second Edition). SAGE Publications Inc. (US), London, GBR.

Wilby, R. L. and Perry, G. L. W., 2006, ‘Climate change, biodiversity and the urban environment: a critical review based on London, UK’, Progress in Physical Geography30, pp. 73.

Wuqiang, L., Song, S. and Wei, L., 2012. Urban spatial patterns based on the urban green space system: A strategic plan for Wuhan City, P. R. China Shi Song.


Updated: October 5, 2015 — 7:31 am