Different root characters occur according to soil structure. Root enlarges, spreads and grows with its small roots and enlarges and deepens in well aired and sandy soil. Shallow and distributed root bodies are formed in silty, clayey or drained sub soil. Roots of some plants’ same species have different characteristics in different soil structure. It is difficult to transplant plants in an areas furnished with solid construction material or densely vegetated with plants (Kim, 1988).
Appropriateness of soil aspects from which the plant is removed is as important as the plant species. Some soils can be as effective as the plant species in growing a root system which is compact and rich in terms of hairy root. As plants that grow in sandy soil forms deep and complicated root systems, they are more risky in transplantation when compared to the plants removed form clayey soil. But as there is not enough oxygen in clayey soil, capillary roots that are very important in new root formation don’t grow enough. Because of this, ventilation of soil with different methods increases the level of success. Deep soil without any rocks, logs etc. are better in removing big plants (Urgenq, 1998).
1.1.3 Transplantation time
Some definite periods of a year are much better for transplantation of plants. But this situation doesn’t mean that plants can only be transplanted in these periods. Successful plantation can be made with a more careful digging, planting and after care processes if the transplantation isn’t made in these definite periods.
It is very important to determine the weather conditions that will affect the placement stage of plant’s plantation and transfer period. This important factor increases the level of success in transplantation of special plant species. In addition to this, in order to make a good development during transplantation, preparations should be completed before planting, landscaping programs and lists should be made and reviewed. Spring season is preferred more in regions that have cold climate. A plant that is transplanted in early spring regains some of its sections that it lost before the weather becomes warmer and it renews itself although partially. A plant that is transplanted in autumn has to be very strong and endure the winter season before completely recover from the shock of transplantation. August is generally preferred for planting evergreen plants in cold climate regions. Transplantation of Betula sp. (Birch) species is preferred to be made in early spring. As roots of Magnolia sp. (Magnolia Tree) are damaged during transplantation, they are exposed to fungus disease. This is why transplantation process should be carried out in spring when the plants are awake and their physiological activities are more alive; thus they are more resistant to these diseases. In such cases, the best thing to do is to take professional opinions into consideration (Harris, 1983).
Although antiperspirant sprays are used in plant transplantations that are made off-season, these transplantations shouldn’t be made as much as possible especially when the plants have just started to stool. A proper digging process is one of the most important factors in the success of transplantation. Studies until now have shown that digging for the transplantation of a tree in leaf foliated should be made in two stages. Firstly, bottom roots should be dug and irrigated, then after waiting for 7-10 days; all roots should be dug and taken out.
Divaricated and in leaf foliated plants are transplanted mostly at the beginning of autumn and at the end of spring. If the winter is very mild in a region, the transplantation can be done towards winter; but soil should be prepared separately and should be prevented from becoming mud. Transplantation in winter has the advantages of cool and cold weather. But if it becomes too cold, plants may be affected and be damaged. During spring plantations, trees should absolutely be protected from cold weather and soil should be moist.
Plantations at the end of summer and in autumn have a big advantage which is related with the warmth of soil. Soil warmth lead the plant roots grow healthy and distribute. Some plantations during summer gave better results than the spring plantations in terms of longevity.