Surface texture data

Some of the variables can be produced using image wavebands such as surface texture and vegetation metrics. Surface textures are also used widely in LUC mapping. Many texture measures have been developed (Haralick et al. 1973, Kashyap et al. 1982, He and Wang 1990, Unser 1995, Emerson et al. 1999) and have been used for image classifications (Franklin and Peddle 1989, Narasimha Rao et al. 2002, Berberoglu et. al. 2000). Franklin and Peddle (1990) found that textures based on a grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) and spectral features of a SPOT HRV image improved the overall classification accuracy. Gong et al. (1992) compared GLCM, simple statistical transformations (SST), and texture spectrum (TS) approaches with SPOT HRV data, and found that some textures derived from GLCM and SST improved urban classification accuracy. Shaban and Dikshit (2001) investigated GLCM, grey-level difference histogram (GLDH), and sum and difference histogram (SADH) textures from SPOT spectral data in an Indian urban environment, and found that a combination of texture and spectral features improved the classification accuracy. The results based solely on spectral features increased about 9% to 17% with an addition of one or two texture measures. Furthermore, contrast, entropy, variance, and inverse difference moment provided larger accuracy and the most appropriate window size was 7X7 and 9X9. Multiscale texture measures should be incorporated with original spectral wavebands to improve classification accuracy (Shaban and Dikshit 2001, Podest and Saatchi 2002, Butusov 2003). Recently, the geostatistic-based texture measures were found to provide better classification accuracy than using the GLCM-based textures (Berberoglu et al. 2000). For a specific study, it is often difficult to identify a suitable texture because texture varies with the characteristics of the landscape under investigation and the image data used. Identification of suitable textures involves determination of texture measure, image band, the size of moving window, and other parameters (Chen et al. 2004). The difficulty in identifying suitable textures and the computation cost for calculating textures limit the extensive use of textures in image classification, especially in a large area (Lu and Weng 2007).

To test the texture data on classification accuracy, five different GLCM was derived such as, variance, contrast, dissimilarity, homogeneity, entropy. These measurements incorporated with Landsat spectral wavebands in Eastern Mediterranean region. Overall accuracy was unchanged, however accuracies of settlement and agricultural land classes were increased 4­5%. However, accuracy of bareground and sand dunes decreased using DT classifier.