Anthropometric Measures of the Human

Anthropometry (Gr. anthropos—human, metreo—measure), according to the def­inition in the encyclopaedia PWN, is a group of technologies of making mea­surements of the body or skeleton of a modern and fossil human being, and it enables an accurate and comparable study of diversity and variability of measured characteristics of the human in his personal and evolutionary development.

Knowledge of the human’s dimensions, called anthropometric dimensions, constitutes the basic component of the knowledge base necessary to shape work­stations in terms of the user’s comfort and functionality of the designed products. The application of these dimensions enables one to carefully design a usable space, choose the appropriate size of furniture and their component parts and propose the most favourable arrangement of this furniture in relation of each other and the user.

The frequency distribution of anthropometric characteristics generally takes the form of a Gaussian distribution. Therefore, when there is no possibility of designing furniture for 100 % of the population, in literature, it is recommended to adopt border values of characteristics corresponding to the lower centile (5C), upper centile (95C) and average value (50C). The threshold values determine what number of a given population is located in a given range. Hence, the lowest dimension defined by centile 5C is not achieved by only 5 % of the population, while 95 % of the population is found below centile 95C. Centile 50C (average)

symmetrically divides the population of users into ones achieving a specific dimension and those who do not achieve this dimension (Batogowska and Malinowski 1997). According to the principle of restrictive measures, a properly designed piece of furniture should, therefore, take into account the dimensions adjusted to the dimensions of the users, at least 90 % of the population, that is those, whose dimensions fall between the values of the 5th and 95th centile (Fig. 3.16). Thus, the percentage of people, for whom a usable space or piece of furniture will not be adjusted, will amount to 5 and 10 %, respectively.

Usually, it is assumed that the dimensions that correspond to the characteristics

• of the 5th centile are applied to determine dimensions, borders of zones of reach, positions of important handles, fittings and locks,

• of the 95th centile are used for internal dimensions, spaces for the lower limbs, trunk, etc.

For these reasons, furniture for lying down should be designed for users from the population represented by the 95th centile and furniture for work and dining according to the characteristics of values of the 50th centile, as well as furniture for storage according to 5th or 50th centile. In order to unify the application of this rule, anthropometric data are provided in the system (for men and women) of the 5th, 50th and 95th centile. Figure 3.17 and Table 3.2 summarise the basic anthropo­metric features for a person in a seated position, and Fig. 3.18 and Table 3.3 illustrate the anthropometric features for a person in a standing position.

In the practice of design, there is a fundamental difficulty, due to the variation in the dimensions of individual members of the population. The reason for this dif­ferentiation is ethnic origin, gender, height, development, age and social and pro­fessional class. In order to facilitate the selection of these dimensions, anthropometric data have been provided below for the adults of selected countries

Fig. 3.17 More important anthropometric measures of persons in the seated position: a side view, b front view, c top view

Name of the feature

No. of the feature ace. to PN-EN ISO 7250-1:2010

Parameter

Unit

5th centile

50th centile

95th centile

Woman

Man

Woman

Man

Woman

Man

Reach of straight leg

G1

mm

912

980

1003

1080

1119

1194

Reach of shin at knee bend

G2

mm

774

913

851

1007

952

1112

Depth of the seat from the knee

4.4.7

G3

mm

532

554

578

601

624

646

Depth of the seat

4.4.6

G4

mm

441

480

486

536

552

588

5/6 of the depth of the seat

5/6 G4

mm

367

400

405

446

460

490

Width of space for knees

G3_G4

mm

91

74

92

65

72

58

Depth of buttocks-abdomen

4.2.17

G5

mm

197

230

256

284

343

344

Maximum protrusion of a table worktop

G3_G5

mm

335

324

322

317

281

302

Reach of forearm at elbow bend

G6

mm

274

294

315

335

326

376

The distance of the acromion point (a) from the line of the back

G7

mm

57

53

60

60

80

70

The distance of the acromion points (a) and

(a’)

when the body is bent

G8

mm

193

214

235

241

227

297

Frontal hold reach to the table worktop

G9

mm

601

637

692

746

758

801

Frontal hold reach

4.4.2

G10

mm

687

736

772

836

836

898

Hold reach from the acromion point (a’) to the table worktop when the body is bent

Gil

mm

816

877

949

1010

1070

1126

Frontal hold reach when the body is bent

G12

mm

880

950

1007

1077

1125

1195

Depth of chest

4.2.16

G13

mm

228

214

263

242

321

280

Popliteal height

4.2.12

HI

mm

361

388

402

428

448

488

Seating height

4.2.1

H2

mm

792

833

861

907

916

980

Shoulder seating height

4.2.4

H3

mm

515

547

566

586

625

688

Table 3.2 Dimensions of a person in the seated position for the 5th, 50th and 95th centile (own development based on Jarosz 2003)

(continued)

122 3 Ergonomics of Furniture

Name of the feature

No. of the feature acc. to PN-EN ISO 7250-1:2010

Parameter

Unit

5th centile

50th centile

95th centile

Woman

Man

Woman

Man

Woman

Man

Elbow seating height

4.2.5

H4

mm

198

194

240

225

292

301

Height of loin support

H5

mm

170

220

170

220

170

220

Thigh gap

4.2.13

H6

mm

115

115

139

146

169

171

Thigh height

H7

mm

471

500

517

544

567

606

Arm length from acromion (a) to radiale (r)

H8

mm

317

353

326

361

333

387

Worktop height

HP

mm

254

253

305

291

367

381

Knee height

HK

mm

112

112

116

116

118

118

Thigh height

4.2.14

HlpHK

mm

471

500

517

544

567

606

Knee height

H7_H1

mm

110

112

115

116

119

118

Height to the rails

HlpH6

mm

476

503

541

574

617

659

Height to the worktop of the table

HlpH4

mm

559

582

642

653

740

789

Body height

4.1.2

HC1

mm

1536

1660

1634

1778

1740

1890

Elbow seating width

SO

mm

391

481

454

548

517

621

Hip seating width

4.1.11

SI

mm

325

319

365

353

410

592

Shoulder width

4.2.8

S2

mm

332

376

372

440

416

445

Shoulder seating width

4.2.9

S3

mm

355

456

453

518

525

588

Elbow width

S4

mm

391

481

454

548

517

621

Width of reach of straight legs

S5

mm

770

1124

846

1238

944

1368

Width of reach of legs bent at the knees

S6

mm

654

1046

718

1154

804

1274

Width of frontal hold reach at elbow bend

S7

mm

880

964

1002

1110

1068

1197

Width of frontal hold reach on the table worktop

S8

mm

1420

1544

1636

1812

1772

1907

(continued)

3.4 Anthropotechnical Designing

Fig. 3.18 More important anthropometric measures of a person in a standing position: a front view, b side view

of the European Union for the purpose of designing (Jarosz 2003) (Tables 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8 and 3.9).

Often, designs include the individual character of the workstation and place for sleep or rest. Then, the designer should both independently calculate the value of individual measures and specify the value of the centile representing the user, for whom the project is created (Dirken 2001; Haak and Leever-van der Burgh 1994; Molenbroek 1994; Panero and Zelnik 1979; Pheasant 2001). The method of cal­culating the dimension for centile C has been given below:

SC = SR ± Z • SD (3.8)

where

• SC—dimension calculated for centile C,

• SR—average measures established on the basis of anthropometric tables of a selected population,

• Z—coefficient established from Table 3.10. The coefficient can assume ± values. For dimensions above the average, the coefficient has the value (+), while for dimensions below the average value, the coefficient has the value (—),

• SD—standard deviation for the dimension SR determined on the basis of anthropometric tables of the selected population.

No. of the feature

Name of the feature

Men

Women

Centiles

5

50

95

5

50

95

4.1.1

Body height when standing

1710

1810

1910

1580

1690

1790

4.1.12

Hip width when standing

310

340

370

315

350

405

4.2.1

Seating height

900

950

1000

840

900

950

4.2.2

Eye height when seating

770

820

870

710

760

820

4.2.9

Shoulder width (upper body width)

425

460

500

365

400

430

4.2.11

Hip width when seating

320

350

390

325

375

630

4.2.12

Shin length (popliteal height)

415

455

505

370

410

450

4.2.14

Thigh height

505

550

600

460

500

550

4.3.1

Arm length

185

195

205

160

175

195

4.3.3

Arm width

80

90

95

70

80

85

4.3.7

Foot length

240

260

280

230

250

275

4.3.9

Head length

185

195

205

170

180

195

4.3.10

Head width

145

155

170

140

150

160

4.3.12

Head circumference

550

580

600

520

550

580

4.4.2

Frontal reach (fingers straight)

820

870

930

740

810

870

4.4.7

Length buttock-knee

580

630

670

540

590

450

Table 3.5 Anthropometric data for the region: Central Europe (Jarosz 2003)

No. of the feature

Name of the feature

Men

Women

Centiles

5

50

95

5

50

95

4.1.1

Body height when standing

1670

1770

1860

1550

1660

1750

4.1.12

Hip width when standing

310

350

375

315

360

410

4.2.1

Seating height

880

940

980

820

880

930

4.2.2

Eye height when seating

740

800

850

700

750

810

4.2.9

Shoulder width (upper body width)

420

460

490

365

420

455

4.2.11

Hip width when seating

310

365

390

330

400

440

4.2.12

Shin length (popliteal height)

420

465

500

390

425

460

4.2.14

Thigh height

495

550

595

460

500

540

4.3.1

Arm length

175

190

205

160

175

190

4.3.3

Arm width

80

90

95

70

75

85

4.3.7

Foot length

240

265

285

220

240

260

4.3.9

Head length

180

190

200

170

180

190

4.3.10

Head width

145

155

165

135

145

155

4.3.12

Head circumference

540

575

600

520

550

590

4.4.2

Frontal reach (fingers straight)

800

850

890

740

800

840

4.4.7

Length buttock-knee

550

610

660

530

580

630

No. of the feature

Name of the feature

Men

Women

Centiles

5

50

95

5

50

95

4.1.1

Body height when standing

1660

1750

1850

1540

1630

1720

4.1.1

Hip width when standing

305

345

385

315

360

405

4.2.1

Seating height

860

910

960

830

870

910

4.2.2

Eye height when seating

730

790

850

670

730

790

4.2.9

Shoulder width (upper body width)

410

450

490

370

410

450

4.2.11

Hip width when seating

310

360

400

325

380

435

4.2.12

Shin length (popliteal height)

395

445

490

375

405

430

4.2.14

Thigh height

490

550

590

445

510

540

4.3.1

Arm length

175

190

205

155

175

190

4.3.3

Arm width

80

90

100

75

80

85

4.3.7

Foot length

245

265

285

225

245

265

4.3.9

Head length

180

190

200

170

180

190

4.3.10

Head width

150

155

165

145

150

160

4.3.12

Head circumference

540

570

600

530

550

580

4.4.2

Frontal reach (fingers straight)

800

840

890

740

780

820

4.4.7

Length buttock-knee

550

600

650

520

570

610

Table 3.7 Anthropometric data for the region: south-eastern Europe (Jarosz 2003)

No. of the feature

Name of the feature

Men

Women

Centiles

5

50

95

5

50

95

4.1.1

Body height when standing

1640

1730

1830

1530

1620

1720

4.1.12

Hip width when standing

310

340

370

315

350

400

4.2.1

Seating height

860

900

960

800

860

900

4.2.2

Eye height when seating

740

790

840

680

730

780

4.2.9

Shoulder width (upper body width)

420

450

490

365

405

430

4.2.11

Hip width when seating

310

355

390

320

370

430

4.2.12

Shin length (popliteal height)

410

455

485

340

380

420

4.2.14

Thigh height

490

535

580

425

460

495

4.3.1

Arm length

175

190

205

160

175

190

4.3.3

Arm width

80

90

95

70

75

85

4.3.7

Foot length

245

265

285

220

240

260

4.3.9

Head length

175

190

205

160

175

190

4.3.10

Head width

145

155

165

140

150

160

4.3.12

Head circumference

550

570

590

530

550

570

4.4.2

Frontal reach (fingers straight)

790

830

880

740

780

830

4.4.7

Length buttock-knee

570

600

650

530

570

610

Table 3.8 Anthropometric data for the region: France (Jarosz 2003)

No. of the feature

Name of the feature

Men

Women

Centiles

5

50

95

5

50

95

4.1.1

Body height when standing

1660

1770

1890

1530

1630

1740

4.1.12

Hip width when standing

310

340

370

315

350

400

4.2.1

Seating height

870

930

980

820

860

910

4.2.2

Eye height when seating

750

800

850

690

730

780

4.2.9

Shoulder width (upper body width)

410

450

490

370

410

430

4.2.11

Hip width when seating

315

350

380

320

375

430

4.2.12

Shin length (popliteal height)

390

445

490

345

385

425

4.2.14

Thigh height

495

540

580

455

490

525

4.3.1

Arm length

180

195

210

160

170

180

4.3.3

Arm width

80

90

95

70

75

85

4.3.7

Foot length

245

265

285

220

235

255

4.3.9

Head length

180

195

205

170

180

190

4.3.10

Head width

145

155

165

135

140

150

4.3.12

Head circumference

540

570

600

520

550

570

4.4.2

Frontal reach (fingers straight)

800

850

910

730

780

830

4.4.7

Length buttock-knee

560

620

660

520

570

610

Table 3.9 Anthropometric data for the region: Iberian Peninsula (Jarosz 2003)

No. of the feature

Name of the feature

Men

Women

Centiles

5

50

95

5

50

95

4.1.1

Body height when standing

1580

1710

1830

1510

1600

1700

4.1.12

Hip width when standing

295

340

370

300

350

400

4.2.1

Seating height

830

890

950

800

850

900

4.2.2

Eye height when seating

720

790

850

680

740

810

4.2.9

Shoulder width (upper body width)

400

440

480

350

390

430

4.2.11

Hip width when seating

300

345

390

310

360

425

4.2.12

Shin length (popliteal height)

400

440

480

340

380

420

4.2.14

Thigh height

470

520

570

445

480

520

4.3.1

Arm length

170

185

215

155

175

200

4.3.3

Arm width

80

85

90

70

75

80

4.3.7

Foot length

240

270

300

215

245

280

4.3.9

Head length

175

185

200

165

180

190

4.3.10

Head width

145

155

165

140

150

160

4.3.12

Head circumference

520

565

600

505

535

565

4.4.2

Frontal reach (fingers straight)

760

820

880

720

770

820

4.4.7

Length buttock-knee

540

590

640

510

560

600

Table 3.10 Values of the coefficient Z

Z

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

0.0

50.00

49.60

49.20

48.80

48.40

48.01

47.61

47.21

46.81

46.41

+

50.00

50.40

50.80

51.20

51.60

51.99

52.39

52.79

53.19

53.59

0.1

46.02

45.62

45.22

44.83

44.43

44.04

43.64

43.25

42.86

42.47

+

53.98

54.38

54.78

55.17

55.57

55.96

56.36

56.75

57.14

57.53

0.2

42.07

41.68

41.29

40.90

40.52

40.13

39.74

39.36

38.97

38.59

+

57.93

58.32

58.71

59.10

59.48

59.87

60.26

60.64

61.03

61.41

0.3

38.21

37.83

37.45

37.07

36.69

36.32

35.94

35.57

35.20

34.83

+

61.79

62.17

62.55

62.93

63.31

63.68

64.06

84.43

64.80

65.17

0.4

34.46

34.09

33.72

33.36

33.00

32.64

32.28

31.92

31.56

31.21

+

65.54

65.91

66.28

66.64

67.00

67.36

67.72

68.08

68.44

68.79

0.5

30.85

30.50

30.15

29.81

29.46

29.12

28.77

28.43

28.10

27.76

+

69.15

69.50

69.85

70.19

70.54

70.88

71.23

71.57

71.90

72.24

0.6

27.43

27.09

26.76

26.43

26.11

25.78

25.46

25.14

24.83

24.51

+

72.57

72.91

73.24

73.57

73.89

74.22

74.54

74.86

75.17

75.49

0.7

24.20

23.89

23.58

23.27

22.96

22.66

22.36

22.06

21.77

21.48

+

75.80

76.11

76.42

76.73

77.04

77.34

77.64

77.94

78.23

78.52

0.8

21.19

20.90

20.61

20.33

20.05

19.77

19.49

19.22

18.94

18.67

+

78.81

79.10

79.39

79.67

79.95

80.23

80.51

80.78

81.06

81.33

0.9

18.41

18.14

17.88

17.62

17.36

17.11

16.85

16.60

16.35

16.11

+

81.59

81.86

82.12

82.38

82.64

82.89

83.15

83.40

83.65

83.89

1.0

15.87

15.62

15.39

15.15

14.92

14.69

14.46

14.23

14.01

13.79

+

84.13

84.38

84.61

84.85

85.08

85.31

85.54

85.77

85.99

86.21

1.1

13.57

13.35

13.14

12.92

12.71

12.51

12.30

12.10

11.90

11.70

+

86.43

86.65

86.86

87.08

87.29

87.49

87.70

87.90

88.10

88.30

1.2

11.51

11.31

11.12

10.93

10.75

10.56

10.38

10.20

10.03

9.85

+

88.49

88.69

88.88

89.07

89.25

89.44

89.62

89.80

89.97

90.15

1.3

9.68

9.51

9.34

9.18

9.01

8.85

8.69

8.53

8.38

8.23

+

90.32

90.49

90.66

90.82

90.99

91.15

91.31

91.47

91.62

91.77

1.4

8.08

7.93

7.78

7.64

7.49

7.35

7.21

7.08

6.94

6.81

+

91.92

92.07

92.22

92.36

92.51

92.65

92.79

92.92

93.06

93.19

1.5

6.68

6.55

6.43

6.30

6.18

6.06

5.94

5.82

5.71

5.59

+

93.32

93.45

93.57

93.70

93.82

93.94

94.06

94.18

94.39

94.41

1.6

5.48

5.37

5.26

5.16

5.05

4.95

4.85

4.75

4.65

4.55

+

94.52

94.63

94.74

94.84

94.95

95.05

95.15

95.25

95.35

95.45

1.7

4.46

4.36

4.27

4.18

4.09

4.01

3.92

3.84

3.75

3.67

+

95.54

95.64

95.73

95.82

95.91

95.99

96.08

96.16

96.25

96.33

1.8

3.59

3.51

3.44

3.36

3.29

3.22

3.14

3.07

3.01

2.94

+

96.41

96.49

96.56

96.64

96.71

96.78

96.86

96.93

96.99

97.06

1.9

2.87

2.81

2.74

2.68

2.62

2.56

2.50

2.44

2.39

2.33

+

97.13

97.19

97.26

97.32

97.38

97.44

97.50

97.56

97.61

97.67

(continued)

Table 3.10 (continued)

Z

0

0.01

0.02

0.03

0.04

0.05

0.06

0.07

0.08

0.09

2.0

2.28

2.22

2.17

2.12

2.07

2.02

1.97

1.92

1.88

1.83

+

97.72

97.78

97.83

97.88

97.93

97.98

98.03

98.08

98.12

98.17

2.1

1.79

1.74

1.70

1.66

1.62

1.58

1.54

1.50

1.46

1.43

+

98.21

98.26

98.30

98.34

98.38

98.42

98.46

98.50

98.54

98.57

2.2

1.39

1.38

1.32

1.29

1.25

1.22

1.19

1.16

1.13

1.10

+

98.61

98.64

98.68

98.71

98.75

98.78

98.81

98.84

98.87

98.90

2.3

1.07

1.04

1.02

0.99

0.96

0.94

0.91

0.89

0.87

0.84

+

98.93

98.96

98.98

99.01

99.04

99.06

99.09

99.11

99.13

99.16

2.4

0.82

0.80

0.78

0.75

0.73

0.71

0.69

0.68

0.66

0.64

+

99.18

99.20

99.22

99.25

99.27

99.29

99.31

99.32

99.34

99.36

2.5

0.62

0.60

0.59

0.57

0.55

0.54

0.52

0.51

0.49

0.48

+

99.38

99.40

99.41

99.43

99.45

99.46

99.48

99.49

99.51

99.52

2.9

0.19

0.18

0.18

0.17

0.16

0.16

0.15

0.15

0.14

0.14

+

99.81

99.82

99.83

99.83

99.84

99.84

99.85

99.85

99.86

99.86

Example

If the average height of an adult male amounts to SR = 1766 mm, the standard deviation of this measure amounts to SD = 76 mm, and then, in reading the value of coefficient Z (for the corresponding centile) from Table 3.10, we calculate the sought height value:

for 5C

SC = 1766 – 1.64

76 = 1641 mm,

for 85C

SC = 1766 + 1.04

76 = 1845 mm,

for 99C

SC = 1766 + 2.33

76 = 1943 mm.

When designing interiors, we refer the dimensions of many objects to the dimension of the dominating object or also the dominating dimension of the user. By knowing his main features, determining the functionality of the designed fur­niture piece or interior, as well as the average value and standard deviation of this dimension, the value of coefficient Z can be calculated, which will allow to design other dimensions of a given product or other objects:

Z =(SC-SR)/SD. (3.9)

Examples

A man who is 1920 mm tall represents the group of tall people, and 98.87 % of the population is shorter, because

Z = (1920-1706)/94 = +2.28,

and in Table 3.10, the coefficient Z = + 2.28 corresponds to the 98.87th centile.

In a kitchen furnished with cabinets with a height of 900 mm, the lowest usable plane is the bottom surface of the sink away from the floor by 750 mm. The centile corresponding to the first height specifies how many users will be taller:

Z = (750-766)/43 = -0.37.

Based on the calculated Z value, it can be concluded that 100 % – 35.57 % = 64.43 % of tall users will have to bend down while doing the dishes and straighten up again when moving on to work at the cabinets.

When designing, the dimension differences resulting from the age of users using the same furniture should also be taken into account. Compiling the average dimension for a man and woman of different ages can be conducted on the basis of the equation:

SRa+b = %A • SRa + %B • SRb (3.10)

and

SDA+b = %A • SDA + %B • SDB + %A • %B • (SRa – SR#)2 (3.11)

When compiling the dimensions for any two groups, one needs to know the average dimensions and standard deviations of these dimensions for each of the groups. For example, at the age of 65, women dominate (58.65 %), while for the average population, the representation of gender is more uniform (A = 50.27 % of men and B = 49.73 % of women). Assuming the average height of the body of a man aged 18-65 years old equal to, e. g., SRA = 1766 mm and standard deviation SRA = 75.46 mm, as well as the dimensions of women corresponding to these parameters: SRB = 1646 mm and SRB = 67.91 mm, the average height of the human body between the ages of 18 to 65 years old should amount to:

SRa+b = 0.5027 • 1766 + 0.4973 • 1646 = 1706.32 mm,

SDa+B2 = 0.5027 • 75.45962 + 0.4973 • 67.91132 + 0.5027 • 0.4973 • (1766-1646)2, SDa+B2 = 2862.45 + 2293.52 + 3599.90 = 8775.87,

SDa+b = 93.6 mm.

Adding and subtracting dimensions takes place according to the superposition principle:

SRa ± B = SRa ± SRb, (3.12)

SDA±b = SDA + SDB±2 • r • SDa • SDb. (3.13)

Coefficient r (Table 3.11) expresses relations between two dimensions of the body.

Dimension

Height

Width

Depth

Height

0.65

Width

0.30

0.65

Depth

0.20

0.40

0.20

Table 3.11 Coefficient value of the relations between the dimensions of the body

Example

In order to determine the height of the worktop of a table, the seat height should be set at SRa = 446 mm and height from the seat to the surface of the worktop SRB = 244 mm. For the adult population of users, the result of this compilation provides the average value:

SRa+b = 446 + 244 = 690 mm,

SD2 = 262 + 242 + 2 • 0.65 • 26 • 24 = 2063.2,

SD = 45.42 mm.

The average height between the floor and the worktop surface should therefore amount to 690 mm. In order to calculate the height taking into account the base under the feet (also the soles of footwear), an additional 30 mm should be con­sidered. The new height of the worktop should therefore amount to 720 mm. Of course, a height that takes into account the needs of the population from 1 to 99 % would be satisfying, and therefore

1C = SR—2.33 • SD = 690-2.33 • 45.42 = 584 mm + 30 (sole) = 610 mm, 99C = SR + 2.33 • SD = 690 + 2.33 • 45.42 = 789 mm + 30 (sole) = 820 mm.

In the group of office furniture, chairs are often equipped with a lifting and tilting mechanism of the seat. Therefore, the height of the worktop should be 60 mm higher than at traditional chairs. According to the calculated values, the height of the worktop should range from 610 to 880 mm.