Characteristics of the species used in the transplantation

Pinus pinea L. (Stone pine or umbrella pine):

Stone pine grows in the Mediterranean countries and their picturesque shape of straight trunk and domed crown. Leaves are in pairs (Brain and Valerie Proudley, 1976). This tree grows in native to south-west Europe around the Mediterranean to Greece and Asia. The seeds are eaten raw, roasted like peanuts or added to stews a ragout, a traditional Italian dish. Remains of husks have been found in Roman camps in Britain, indicating a long history of their use. Height may reach 30 m (100 ft) but in the open it forms a much lower umbrella-shaped tree. Flowers open in June, males golden and clustered, females pale yellowish green, about 1-2 cm (1/2 in) long. Cones are large, about 2-5 cm (5 in) long and heavy. They remain closed for 3 years...


Determination of the transplantation area

We can classify the factors that play role in the process of choosing field:

Soil characters of species that will be brought to the field,

Enable the mechanic tree mover to enter the field and make transplantation easily,

Choosing the best places for plants in terms of aesthetical and functional aspects,

By taking these criterions into consideration, the area of the campus transplantation area was determined to be: At the north of the library building, southwest of former Forest Engineering and Forest Industrial Engineering building, northwest of Landscape Engineering and Vocational School of Higher Education and the area on the right side of campus entrance was chosen.

4.1.1 Choosing plants

Time is crucial in transplantation process...


Transplantation of trees in campus of Bartin University (case study)

Transplantation processes of large trees in Campus of Bartin University were analyzed in this study. The aim of this study was to ensure a modern appearance and qualification to Campus of Bartin University in terms of plantal arrangement. A commission was formed by Deanship of Faculty of Forestry. Necessary literature review and field analysis studies were done by the commission and some alternative projects were prepared. At the end of the meeting with deanship, the most proper project in terms of practicability and cost was chosen. The chosen project was detailed and prepared for application. Mechanic tree mover was rented from Karabuk Municipality. The project was applied on May 2004 and transplantation of 10 plants that were of 6 species was completed.

Material: Faculty of Forestry has...


Transplantation of palms

Palms are monocotyledon and they have either one body or many bodies that are not branched out. Any damages on the body leave a scar as cambium shell doesn’t exist. Most of the bodies of palm species are in the shape of filaments that grow at the bottom of body. If a root is cut or broken, the plant generally dies. Although palms can be transplanted at any time of year, warm spring and summer months are generally preferred as root growth is fast in these months (Harris, 1988). Transplantation in our country should be made in summer because of climatic conditions; transplanted palms’ roots die during the process and soil heat is needed in order to ensure the development of new roots...


Transplantation with mechanic methods

There are some models developed for digging, removing and transferring of plants. In a model called "Tree Nursery", carriage of plant can be done with an articulated lorry or truck. Plants are wrapped and hydro alkali booster four scoops are stuck on the ground; after shaping the root ball, the bottom of the plant is lifted with the scoops and moved out of the soil. If the weather is proper and the distance is not very long, the plant can be carried vertically or can be bended toward the front and carrying can be done. Pits in which plants will be put should be dug beforehand. Planting should be done by taking the slope and the shape of the ground into consideration (Harris, 1983).

The second method used in plant transplantation is called "Skin with Cohesive"...


Transplantation of plants with bare soil

Some contended plants can be transplanted without bare soil mass. Although depending on the plant species, generally many bushes and trees can be transplanted even in summer season. But the soil mass shouldn’t lose its humidity in a short time. Before the plantation, a few holes should be made on soil mass in order to enable the water pass through the soil and prevent the humidity (Urgeng, 1998).

1.1.7 Transplantation of plants by freezing soil mass

This method is used in regions with cold climate. In order to use this method, the soil should be frozen at least 30 cm and deeper. Firstly, a pit is dug and soil around the root is prepared for removal. Soil is often irrigated during frost period in order to freeze the soil. Freezing can be accelerated by using carbon dioxide...


Transplantation methods

While determining the transplantation methods of plants: aspects of the natural soil and transplantation area, distance between these areas, aspects of the settlements around these areas, the amount of time between removing and planting the plant, devices that will be used during the process and finance factors have significant roles. In order to make vegetal design of big areas and make successful plantations time, money, protectors and development methods are needed.

Removing the plant which will be transplanted should be made in overcast, rainy weather rather than in windy, sunny, too dry or too cold weather; nights are preferable for transplantation as microorganisms that revitalize root development are protected at night...


Preparation of big sized plants for transplantation

Plants that are taller than 20 m are in this group. The pit dug for developing root structure of these plants can be formed as 2 or 3 yearly periods. In 2 yearly period, during the first year, A, C,E parts are dug and filled while in the second year B, D, F parts are dug and filled. In 3 yearly period, in the first year A, D parts are dug and filled, in the second year B, E parts are dug and filled and in the last year C, F parts are dug and filled (Figure 6). When the last filling process is completed, necessary pruning is done and after 1 year, plant becomes ready for transplantation.


Fig. 6. Preparation of a plant for transplantation in four years with root nurturing in three phases.


Preparation of middle sized plants for transplantation

Trees that are 10 – 20 m tall are in this group. A denser root nurturing is necessary in transplanting these plants, or else the chance of plants to continue life decreases. This is why; preparations should start 1-2 years before transplanting the plant. Firstly tap part of the plant is pruned strongly but according to the rules. A pit about 30-40 cm is dug around the plant by taking plant’s tap corolla. Especially the depth of pit is significant; all side roots of the plant should fit in to the pit. Roots that appear in the soil that is dug are cut with a sharp device, if the thickness of root is over 1 cm, puttying should definitely be done.

Organic substances, compost, qualified and slight soil mass is filled into the pit in order to ensure the easy growth of roots and accordingly ensur...


Preparation of plants for transplantation

Plants that are grown in nursery are rich in terms of capillary and hairy roots as they get all the necessary elements. These plants that have compact structures are transplanted very successfully. On the other hand, transplantation of plants that grow in rural areas and forests where maintenance process aren’t made is very difficult. In this scope, root of a plant that will be transplanted should be nurtured 1-3 years before the transplantation and other maintenance processes should be completed. Transplantation will be successful if these conditions are carried out.

1.1.5 Preparation of large bushes and shrubs for transplantation

Bushes higher than 3-4 meters and shrubs that can reach 8-10 meters are in this group...